Krsna slava, jedno od glavnih obeležja srpskog Pravoslavlja

Krsna slava je jedno od glavnih obeležja srpskog Pravoslavlja.

Od 2014. godine nalazi se na listi nematerijalne kulturne baštine Uneska i to je prvo kulturno dobro iz Srbije upisano na tu listu!

Danas je Sveti Nikola, najveća krsna slava u Srba. Kažu da pola Srbije danas slavi a druga polovina ide u goste.

Svima koji danas slave želimo Sreću slavu!

http://pslanguagecafe.com/pulja-carobni-balkon-mediterana-i-bari-cudesan-grad-svetog-nikole/

Sveti vladika Nikolaj Velimirović o krsnoj slavi

Nijedan narod nije tako smišljeno i nežno ukrasio hrišćanske praznike kao srpski narod. Sve je okićeno naročitim dirljivim i krasnim običajima kao lepo izatkani ćilim. Pa još kako su Srbi naučili da vole i poštuju svece Božije, naročito svoje krsne slave. Zaista kao niko u svetu.

Šta je krsna slava? To je jedan isključivo srpski običaj. Svaki dom ima svoga sveca zaštitnika. 

Hrišćanski sveci nisu nekakvi izmišljeni bogovi nego stvarne ličnosti, koji su kao ljudi na zemlji živeli bogougodnim životom, posvetili se i u Raj ušli. Oni se mole Bogu za nas na zemlji i Bog iz ljubavi prema njima — zato što su oni pokazali svoju ljubav prema Bogu — ispunjava im molitve za ljude. Na dan slave srpski dom blista u svetlosti i radosti. Na sto se postavljaju u čast svetitelja četiri stvari: zapaljena sveća od voska, kolač od pšenice, osvećeno žito i vino. Sveća predstavlja svetlost istine kojom je Hristos obasjao svet.

Hleb, žito i vino

Hleb, žito i vino predstavljaju duhovnu radost i hranu, sve od Hrista i kroz Hrista. Sva čeljad su obučena toga dana u svečano ruho, i svi se trude oko dočekivanja gostiju. Blagodareći slavama u Srbiji se nikad nije umiralo od gladi. Jer su slave vrlo česte, a milostinja čini polovinu slave. No ne samo da svi domovi srpski slave slavu nego i sve ustanove i društva: i sela i gradovi i crkve i škole i vojska i esnafi i bolnice i razna dobrotvorna udruženja.

Sveti vladika Nikolaj

Od kada Srbi slave Krsnu slavu?

Naši preci su počeli da slave onog svetitelja na čiji dan su primili sveto Krštenje (odatle i naziv “krsna slava”).

Srbi nisu prekidali ovu svoju tradiciju ni u turskom ropstvu, ni u brojnim ratovima i bedama, sve do vremena nesretnog komunizma, kada su se u Srbiji u mnogim domovima slavske sveće ugasile.

U današnje vreme, Bogu hvala, mnogi žele da se vrate svojim korenima, da opet slave svoju krsnu slavu i tako vrate Božiji blagoslov na svoj dom.

Zašto slavimo slavu?

Svetitelj koga slavimo je naš zaštitnik i molitvenik pred Bogom. On nas nevidljivo čuva i pomaže nam u svim našim životnim teškoćama. On je naš životni učitelj. Zato mi treba da se potrudimo da zadobijemo one vrline koje je on stekao živeći na zemlji i trudeći se da ugodi Bogu.

Kako da pravilno slavimo svetitelja?

Važno je da krsnu slavu proslavimo onako kako nam je sveta Crkva propisala i kako nam je od naših starih ostalo. Sve nepravilnosti koje se danas javljaju, kao što su spremanje mrsnih jela u posne dane, neumereno korišćenje alkohola, ružne reči i psovke, pušenje pored slavske sveće i drugo, su vrlo štetne. Bolje je da ne slavimo, nego da ovako vrećamo našeg svetog zaštitnika i učinimo veliki greh.

Kako se prenosi slava?

Slava se prenosi sa oca na sina kada sin zasnuje svoju porodicu i ode iz očeve kuće.

Te, prve godine, sin dolazi kod oca na slavu. Tom prilikom, otac predaje u desnoj ruci četvrtinu slavskog kolača i čestitaju jedan drugom slavu. Sin nosi deo kolača svojoj kući i deli ga sa svojom porodicom. Sledeće godine sin samostalno slavi slavu.

Svećenje vodice

Na nekoliko dana pred slavu zovemo našeg sveštenika da nam osveti vodicu i donese Božiji blagoslov u dom. Za tu priliku treba da pripremimo posudu sa vodom, buket bosiljka, manju sveću, kadionicu sa žarom, tamjan, slavsku ikonu (koju postavljamo na istočnoj strani) i spisak ukućana.

Prilikom osvećenja vodice, sveštenik čita molitve za napredak svih ukućana, kao i za pokoj duša naših umrlih srodnika. Po osvećenju, otpijamo od slavske vodice, a sa ostatkom spremamo slavski kolač i kuvamo slavsko žito.

Kada spremamo posna a kada mrsna jela za slavu?

Vrlo je važno da slavska trpeza bude u skladu sa danom u koji se slava padne. Ako se slava pada u post ili ako se mrsna slava padne te godine u sredu ili petak, OBAVEZNO se sprema posna trpeza. Veliki je greh pred Bogom i pred našim Svetiteljem, da u te dane spremamo mrsna jela da bi smo što više ugodili gostima. Toga dana treba pre svega da umilostivimo i da ugodimo našem najvažnijem gostu — Svetitelju.

Da li treba da slavimo i onda kada smo u nekoj duševnoj tuzi?

Slava je pre svega jedan duhovni događaj. Najvažnije je rezanje kolača, a sve ostalo je stvar volje i mogućnosti. Dakle, spremanje jela, zvanje gostiju i veselje uopšte nisu uslov da se krsna slava proslavi kako treba. 

Zbog neshvatanja smisla krsne slave, u našem narodu postoji pogrešno mišljenje da u smrtnom slučaju ne treba da slavimo slavu. Upravo je onda važno da režemo slavski kolač. Kada sveštenik čita molitve za naš napredak, on to čini i za pokoj duša naših umrlih srodnika, a molitva i milosrđe su jedino što možemo da učinimo za upokojene.

Dan uoči slave

Na dan pred slavu mesimo slavski kolač od čistog pšeničnog brašna, kvasca i soli, bez ikakvih dodataka (mleka, jaja i dr.). Na kolač se stavlja pečat ISHS NIKA (što znači: Isus Hristos pobeđuje), a mogu da se stave i razni ukrasi od testa. Slavski kolač predstavlja naš nasušni hleb koji smo od Boga dobili i koji mu prinosimo na žrtvu u slavu i čast našeg Svetitelja.

Takođe, kolač predstavlja samog Hrista Gospoda koji je Hleb života.

Za sutrašnji dan spremamo crno vino, dve sveće (veliku i malu, po mogućstvu voštane) i slavsko žito (koje se sprema od žita uz dodatak drugih plodova — oraha, suvog grožđa i sl.)

Da li se slavsko žito sprema za slavu?

U našem narodu pogrešno kažu da se slavsko žito ne sprema za svetog Iliju i za svetog arhangela Mihaila zato što su oni živi. Ovo je velika greška jer se slavsko žito ne sprema za pokoj duše sveca, već u slavu i čast njegovu, a u spomen umrlih naših srodnika.

Svi Sveci su živi u Hristu Gospodu, pa se i žito sprema za svaku slavu.

Odlazak u crkvu

Rano ujutru odlazimo u crkvu na svetu liturgiju. Sa sobom nosimo slavski kolač, žito, vino i malu sveću koju stavljamo u žito i kasnije palimo prilikom rezanja kolača.

Toga dana bi trebalo da se svi ukućani (ili barem domaćin) pričeste Svetim tajnama Hristovim. Naravno, uz prethodnu pripremu postom i svetom tajnom pokajanja i ispovesti.

Rezanje kolača

Po završetku svete liturgije sveštenik seče naš kolač i preliva ga vinom. Onda svi zajedno okrećemo kolač i pevamo crkvene pesme. Po završetku, završetku, sveštenik lomi kolač sa domaćinom, i pritom mu kaže: Hristos je među nama! a domaćin odgovara: I jeste i biće! i tako tri puta.

Slavski ručak

Kada dođemo kući domaćin pali slavsku sveću tako što se prekrsti i poljubi je. Ona gori celog dana i simboliše svetlost Hristove nauke.

Kada nam dođu gosti na slavski ručak (ili večeru), posle čestitanja slave, prekrste se i posluže slavskim žitom. Posle molitve (tropar Svetitelja koga slavimo) pristupamo trpezi (sa molitvom i ustajemo sa trpeze). Po starom običaju, domaćin ne seda za trpezu iz poštovanja prema svetitelju koji mu je toga dana glavni gost.

 

Slavarica

Znamenje

Izdavaštvo manastira

svetog Dimitrija, Divljana

Eparhija Niška

Pirot, leta gospodnjeg 2006.

Preuzeto sa sajta:http://www.riznicasrpska.net/riznicasrpska/index.php?topic=66.0

Fotografije: www.spc.rs; Wikimedia i privatna arhiva

 

Slava or Patron Saint’s Day, one of the main characteristics of the Serbian Orthodoxy

Patron Saint’s Day is one of the main characteristics of the Serbian Orthodoxy.

In 2014 it was inscribed on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage List and it represents the first Serbian cultural asset inscribed on this list!

It is St. Nicholas feast day today, the most common Serbian Slava. They say that one half of Serbia celebrates this feast whereas the other half goes to visit them.

To those who celebrate today we wish them a happy Slava!

St. Bishop Nikolai Velimirović says the following about patron saint’s day

The Serbian people have adorned the Christian feasts deliberately and gently as no one else has. Deeply moving and lovely customs decorate everything like an intricately woven rug. The Serbs have indeed learned to love and respect God’s saints, especially their families’ patron saints, like no one else in the world.

What is patron saint’s day? This is an exclusively Serbian custom. Every home has its patron saint.

Christian saints are not some kind of imaginary gods but real people who led sacred lives on earth, became saints and went to Heaven. They pray to God for us on earth and God out of love for them – because they showed their love for God – answers their prayers. On the day of family’s patron saint, the Serbian home shines with light and joy. Four things are put on the table to honor the saint: a lit wax candle, ritual wheat bread or the Slava bread, a bowl of sanctified minced boiled wheat – the Slava wheat and wine. The candle represents the light of truth with which Christ lit up the world.

Bread, wheat and wine

Bread, wheat and wine represent spiritual joy and food, from Christ and through Christ. All children are dressed in their best clothes, and everyone greets the guests. Thanks to this custom, people never starved to death in Serbia. Patron saints’ days are rather frequent, and giving alms is a half of the patron saint’s feast. Not only do all Serbian homes celebrate their patron saint, but all institutions and associations do as well: villages and cities and churches and the army and guilds and hospitals and many charity organizations.

St. Bishop Nikolai

When did the Serbs begin celebrating patron saint’s day?

Our ancestors began celebrating the saint on whose day they were christened.

The Serbs cherished this tradition even during the Turkish occupation, in wartimes and poverty, until the Communist era when the Slava candles in many homes in Serbia were extinguished.

Nowadays, thank God, many people want to return to their roots, to celebrate their patron saint’s day again and in this way regain God’s blessing.

Why do we celebrate patron saint’s day?

The saint we venerate is our protector who prays to God for us. He protects us and helps us survive the hardships of life. He is our teacher, which is why we should make an effort to cultivate those virtues he possessed during his life on earth trying to please God.

How to celebrate our patron saint’s feat properly?

It is important to celebrate our Slava the way our Holy Church has prescribed and the way our ancestors did it. Many irregularities occurring today, such as foods with meat, eggs or dairy products during a period of fasting, excessive consumption of alcohol, swear words and curses, smoking next to the Slava candle and what not are very harmful. It would be better not to celebrate our Slava than to insult our patron saint in this way and commit a great sin.

How is Slava passed down?

Slava is passed down from father to son when he starts his own family and leaves his father’s house.

That first year the son visits his father’s house on the patron saint’s day. On this occasion, the father gives one quarter of the Slava bread to his son with his left hand and they congratulate each other. The son takes that part of the Slava bread home and shares it with his family members. Next year he celebrates Slava on his own.

Holy water

A couple of days before Slava we call our priest to our home to bring us God’s blessing and to say a prayer and bless holy water. For this occasion we have to prepare a bowl of water, a bouquet of basil, a small candle, a censer with embers, an icon of our patron saint (which we face east) and a list of our family members.

In the act of blessing holy water, the priest reads prayers for prosperity of all family members, as well as for the souls of the deceased relatives. When the ceremony is over, we drink some water from the bowl, and the rest is used for the preparation of the Slava bread and boiled wheat.

When do we prepare lenten and when meals with meat, eggs and dairy products?

It is very important to prepare food in accordance with the day of the feast. If it happens to be during a fasting period or on a Wednesday or Friday, we have to prepare lenten food. It is a great sin against God and our patron saint to prepare foods with meat, eggs and dairy products to please our guests. On that day we should first and foremost make sure we propitiate and please our most important guest – our patron saint.

Should we celebrate Slava when we are grieving? 

Slava is first and foremost a spiritual event. The most important thing is to cut the Slava bread, all the rest is up to our will and resources. So, preparing food, inviting guests and celebrating are by no means preconditions for venerating our patron saint properly.

Due to misunderstanding of the true meaning of patron saint’s day, our people wrongly assume that in the case of a death in the family they shouldn’t celebrate their Slava. It is precisely then that we should cut our Slava bread because when the priest reads prayers for prosperity, he also reads the ones for the souls of our deceased relatives, and prayers and mercy are the only things we can do for the deceased.

A day before Slava

One day before Slava we bake the Slava bread using wheat flour, yeast and salt, we don’t add milk or eggs. Using a seal, we engrave ISHS NIKA (which means: Jesus Christ wins), and we can also put various other decorations made of dough on it. The Slava bread represents our daily bread God gave us which we offer as a sacrifice in honor of our patron saint.

The bread also represents Jesus Christ himself who is the Bread of Life.

For the following day we prepare red wine, two candles (a big and a small one, if possible made of wax) and a bowl of boiled wheat – the so called Slava wheat (we can add walnuts or raisins).

Do we make the Slava wheat for patron saint’s day?

Our people wrongly suppose that the Slava wheat is not made for St. Elijah and St. Michael the Archangel feasts because they are alive. This is a big mistake because the Slava wheat is not made for the soul of the saint, but in his honor, and in memory of our deceased relatives.

All saints are alive in Christ our Lord so the Slava wheat is made for every patron saint’s day.

Going to church

Early in the morning we go to church to attend holy service. We bring the Slava bread, the Slava wheat, wine and a small candle we put in the Slava wheat and later when we cut the bread we light it.

On that day all family members (or at least the host) should receive Holy Communion, having previously fasted of course and received the Holy Sacraments of Repentance and Confession.

Cutting the Slava bread

When holy service is over the priest cuts our Slava bread and pours a little bit of wine on it. Then we all together turn the bread and sing chants. When the ceremony is over, the priest breaks the bread with the host saying: Christ is among us! and the host replies: He is and he will be! three times.

Slava lunch

When we come home the host lights the Slava candle – he crosses himself and kisses the candle. The candle stays lit the whole day and it represents the light of Christ’s knowledge.

When guest come for lunch (or dinner), they cross themselves and take a bit of the Slava wheat. Having said a prayer we sit around the table (we leave the table also with a prayer). According to the old custom, the host doesn’t sit at the table out of respect for the saint who is his honored guest that day.

 

Retrieved from: http://www.riznicasrpska.net/riznicasrpska/index.php?topic=66.0

Photos: www.spc.rs; Wikimedia and a private archive

Translation: Marija Đurđević

 

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